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How does motion sensor of flood light, high bay light work?

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Update time : 2023-12-19 14:56:49

What is a motion sensor of flood light, high bay light?

Motion sensor lighting detects human movement over large areas using a variety of different technologies. They used to predominantly be utilised in burglar alarms and other security systems. But now it is more widely used to reduce unnecessary energy consumption by turning off the lights when there are no moving objects such as people and cars. When you get home late at night, the LED flood light in the front door will automatically light up. 
Motion sensor of flood light, high bay light

The types and how motion sensor work
Motion sensing technology mainly includes three types: PIR sensor,  microwave sensor, and dual technology sensor.
  • PIR (Passive infrared Sensor) is the most common type of motion-sensing technology in lighting and security systems. As you can expect, It uses infrared radiation emitted by the human body to detect the presence or movement of the human body.
    PIR systems don’t send out anything. Rather, it waits for the infrared light to reach it wherever you placed it. It relies on two slots that contain materials that are sensitive to infrared. When there’s a difference between these slots, it produces a pulse. The pulse is what a PIR system considers a movement.

Infrared light isn’t visible to humans, but we perceive it as heat. All objects you can think of, including living beings, emit IR radiation. Our bodies have a skin temperature of about  34 degrees C (or 93 degrees F). This means we radiate infrared energy at a wavelength of 9 to 10 micrometers.

PIR sensors have no radiation, good concealment, and low power consumption, but their signal amplitude is easily affected by various heat sources and light sources.

  • Microwave sensor (Doppler microwave induction, also known as electromagnetic radar induction), uses the Doppler effect to transmit radar signals.
    When an object enters the induction range, it will change the radar signal waveform, triggering the microwave sensor to generate a signal. Compared with infrared sensing technology, Doppler microwave induction technology has a long sensing distance, high sensitivity, and the ability to penetrate non-metallic substances, unaffected by environment, temperature, dust, and other factors. It should be noted that Doppler microwaves can only sense people in motion, and cannot sense people in a stationary or sleeping state.
    The principle of PCR radar sensing technology is to use ultra wideband for high-precision micro motion detection, which can detect human respiratory signals and trigger sensors to generate alarm signals. The PCR radar sensing technology has strong anti-interference ability and is not affected by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and smoke. It has high recognition accuracy and can be powered by batteries. Due to the ability of PCR radar to penetrate plastic, the sensor can be installed in a concealed manner, which is more aesthetically pleasing.
  • Dual technology sensor

Many types of motion sensor lighting use more than one technology to improve accuracy and reduce false alarms. For instance, it’s quite common to combine PIR and microwave technology in one system.

Both sensors need to trip for the system to activate. In the example above, that means the PIR sensor must detect a temperature change and the microwave sensor must sense a disturbance in the radiation waves. That means a rapid change in temperature won’t trigger the lights if it doesn’t detect any motion. Likewise, an object falling also won’t trigger the system without the required heat.

It’s pretty useful in providing more accurate lighting. There’s no wasted energy.

A downside to it, however, is if one learns how to avoid triggering one, the lights won’t turn on even if the other sensor detects motion. For this reason, some people use two types of technology separately, instead. You can, for example, equip your house with both a PIR sensor and a microwave one. However, this is more useful for security systems.

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